Cervical Stenosis

Last Updated: March 28, 2019

Definition - What does Cervical Stenosis mean?

Cervical stenosis refers to a narrowing or closure of the cervical canal that links the uterus to the vagina. Some women are born with this condition. Others develop it due to post-menopausal changes or cancer of the uterus or cervix.

Cervical stenosis may also be caused by certain medical procedures, such as treatment of the uterine lining to prevent excessive menstrual flow or surgery on the cervix. In these cases, scar tissue affects the cervical opening. Radiation treatments for cancer of the uterus or cervix are also potential causes.

A narrow or missing cervical opening can prevent sperm from reaching the egg to fertilize it.

FertilitySmarts explains Cervical Stenosis

In post-menopausal women, cervical stenosis may occur with no symptoms or complications, and no treatment is then be required unless the woman is attempting a pregnancy.

In women who still menstruate, menstrual flow may be trapped in the uterus causing a number of potential complications. The uterus may become swollen, hard, or distended. Pus may also accumulate, and menstruation may become more painful or cease altogether.

In some cases, cervical stenosis can lead to endometriosis.

Treatment of cervical stenosis usually involves opening the cervix surgically and sometimes placing a temporary stent in the cervical canal to ensure it remains open. After correction, the condition sometimes recurs and so should be monitored.

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