Myomatous Uterus

Definition - What does Myomatous Uterus mean?

A myomatous uterus is a uterus affected by non-cancerous growths called myomas or otherwise known as uterine fibroids. Fibroids may change the shape, structure, and integrity of the uterine cavity. Fibroids can be both a symptom and a cause of infertility, including in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure and miscarriage. Fibroids may also cause other health complications and may require treatment in order to conceive or carry a pregnancy to term.

FertilitySmarts explains Myomatous Uterus

Fibroids are a common health problem for women of childbearing age. Many women with fibroids experience no symptoms. However, some fibroids in certain locations, quantities, or size may incur:

  • Abnormal menstruation
  • Longer, heavier menstruation
  • Severe menstrual cramping
  • Bleeding in between periods
  • Frequent urination
  • Abdominal pain or swelling

There are multiple types of fibroids, categorized by location of growth within the layers of the uterine muscle.

  • Subserosal fibroids are the most common and occur in the outer wall of the uterus
  • Intramural fibroids are somewhat common and occur in the middle, muscular layer of the uterus
  • Submucosal fibroids are rare and protrude into the uterine cavity

Typically, fibroid size can range from the size of a small coin to a large melon. However, pregnancy is known to exacerbate the growth of fibroids, as a result of high levels of hormones. Consequently, fibroids can responsible for implantation failure, miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage, and inability to carry a pregnancy full term. There are several ways fibroids induce infertility or endanger pregnancy:

  • Restrict blood flow to the uterus, damaging the endometrial layer and challenging implantation
  • Changing the shape of the uterine cavity
  • Interfering with sperm passing through the cervix
  • Encroach on fetus’ growing space
  • Disrupt fetal positioning

Fibroid treatment is based on the symptoms and complications of the growths. Treatment falls into two categories: medication or surgery.

Medication used to treat fibroids includes:

  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists
  • Progestin

Surgical:

  • Laparoscopic myomectomy
  • Open myomectomy
  • Uterine fibroid embolization
  • MR guided focused ultrasound
  • Hysterectomy
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