Myomatous Uterus

Reviewed by Dr. Huma Rasheed, MBBSCheckmark | Last updated: April 6, 2020

What Does Myomatous Uterus Mean?

A myomatous uterus is a uterus affected by non-cancerous growths called myomas or otherwise known as uterine fibroids. Fibroids may change the shape, structure, and integrity of the uterus in which a fetus develops.

Fibroids can be both a symptom and a cause of infertility, including in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure and miscarriage. Fibroids may also cause other health complications and may require treatment in order to conceive or carry a pregnancy to term.


FertilitySmarts Explains Myomatous Uterus

There are multiple types of fibroids, categorized by location of growth within the layers of the uterine muscle.

  • Subserosal fibroids are the most common and occur in the outer wall of the uterus
  • Intramural fibroids are somewhat common and occur in the middle, muscular layer of the uterus
  • Submucosal fibroids are rare and protrude into the uterine cavity

How do fibroids impact fertility?

Typically, fibroid size can range from the size of a small coin to a large melon. However, pregnancy is known to exacerbate the growth of fibroids, as a result of high levels of hormones. Consequently, fibroids can be responsible for implantation failure, recurrent miscarriages, and the inability to carry a pregnancy to full term. There are several ways fibroids induce infertility or endanger pregnancy:

  • Restricting blood flow to the uterus, damaging the endometrial layer which can make embryo implantation difficult.
  • Changing the shape of the uterine cavity
  • Interfering with sperm passing through the cervix
  • Encroaching on fetus’ growing space
  • Disrupting fetal positioning

What are the symptoms of fibroids?

Fibroids are a common health problem for women of childbearing age. Many women with fibroids experience no symptoms. However, large-sized fibroids or fibroids in certain locations may cause:

  • Abnormal menstruation
  • Longer, heavier menstruation
  • Severe menstrual cramping
  • Bleeding in between periods
  • Frequent urination
  • Abdominal pain or swelling

How are fibroids treated?

Fibroid treatment is based on symptoms and complications. If the symptoms are mild, the doctor may suggest watchful waiting. For women whose symptoms are annoying, treatment falls into two categories: medication or surgery.

Medication used to treat fibroids includes:

  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists
  • Progestin

Surgical procedures used to treat fibroids includes:

  • Laparoscopic myomectomy
  • Open myomectomy
  • Uterine fibroid embolization
  • MR guided focused ultrasound
  • Hysterectomy

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Uterine IssuesDifficultyUterusFibroids and Polyps

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