Oogenesis

Definition - What does Oogenesis mean?

Oogenesis is the process of development of female gametes or ova or egg that takes place in ovaries. The process of oogenesis begins before birth with the formation of diploid germ cells, called oogonia that have the ability to develop into mature ova. These oogonia are formed during fetal life when the female child isn't born yet. However, the majority of these oogonia degenerate prior to birth and the remaining enter first meiotic division as primary oocytes (also called as immature ova). No new primary oocyte will be produced after birth. The final phase of egg development is completed only if the egg is fertilized by a sperm.

FertilitySmarts explains Oogenesis

After duplicating their genetic material post-birth, primary oocytes are arrested in prophase I and remain arrested at this stage of development for years until they are prepared to shed the first egg (i.e.until the first ovulation period). The immature ova then resume the cell division where they left off until they finish the meiosis I. This yields two daughter cells, each receiving an equal number of chromosomes. Nonetheless, this is not the case with the cytoplasm of the primary oocytes, as the entire cytoplasm remains with one of the daughter cells, which is then designated as the secondary oocyte. The other daughter cell that lacks cytoplasm develops into a first polar body. The polar body is nonfunctional, and therefore, degenerates or gives rise to 2 more polar bodies.

The secondary oocyte is released from the ovary during ovulation. It is destined to become a mature ovum but still contains two copies of each chromosome. A mature ovum should have a single set of chromosomes and not two. So, the oocyte has to undergo a second meiotic division. The secondary oocyte is arrested in metaphase II until fertilization. The penetration the sperm into the secondary oocyte induces the second meiotic division. The second meiotic division finally yields a mature ovum and since this division is also unequal, half of the chromosomes are transferred to the second polar body and the other half is conserved by the ovum along with all of the cytoplasm. Hence, while the mature ovum acquires its single set of chromosomes, it retains the cytoplasm.

If the secondary oocyte is not fertilized by a sperm within a day, it degenerates.



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