Definition - What does Embryo Arrest mean?
Embryo arrest is the complete halting of the development of an embryo during an in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure. During IVF, eggs are extracted and fertilized with sperm in a laboratory setting, and healthy mature embryos are transferred to the uterus for further development. This procedure may fail if a significant number of embryos arrest during development in the laboratory setting as there would be fewer or even no embryos to transfer to a uterus. Embryo arrest can be due to factors related to the embryo as well as factors in the environment that the embryo develops in.
FertilitySmarts explains Embryo Arrest
For an embryo to undergo normal development, the sperm and the egg that created the embryo need to be healthy and the environment that the embryo grows in, typically a culture medium in a laboratory dish, has to be optimum. A changing in any one of these factors can impact cell division and maturation can be slowed down or completely halted leading to embryo arrest.
Nearly 50% of embryos that arrest do so because of chromosomal abnormalities. When the sperm fertilizes an egg, the two sets of chromosomes that each cell possesses pair together and are shared in equal numbers as the embryo further divides. Any abnormality either in the structure or number of these chromosomes can interfere with normal development of the embryo. Failure to activate genes that are needed for cell division is another embryo-related cause of embryo arrest.
The composition of the culture media plays an important role in the development of embryos. Fluctuation of the temperature, pH, humidity, and entry of bacteria to the culture medium can result in embryo arrest. The IVF laboratory usually monitors the environmental conditions and the growing embryos are regularly observed for any abnormalities, but lab errors causing embryo arrest remains a possibility.
If embryos have completely arrested, they are discarded as they can interfere with the development of other embryos. The arrest of one or even a few embryos is normal during the procedure, but having a high rate of embryo arrest can even lead to failure of IVF requiring further IVF cycles.