X Chromosome

Definition - What does X Chromosome mean?

The X-chromosome is one of two sex determining chromosomes found in all humans. The X-chromosome, the female chromosome, is counterpart to the Y-chromosome, the male chromosome. Properly developed X chromosomes are essential to a healthy and developmentally normal fetus. Abnormalities of the X-chromosome may lead to genetic disorders, miscarriage, or stillbirth.

FertilitySmarts explains X Chromosome

There are two sex determining chromosomes: the X chromosome and the Y chromosome. All eggs are X chromosomes; sperm can be either X or Y. Sex cells, the egg and the sperm, contain these sex chromosomes, and the sperm that penetrates the egg during fertilization determines the sex of the fetus. Every person has two chromosomes, one from each parent. Thus, female’s two chromosomes are XX, while male’s are XY.

An issue with a sex chromosome is called a mutation. Mutation may lead to genetic disorders, miscarriage or stillbirth. Genetic disorders are called X-linked or Y-linked disorders, based on which chromosome is abnormal. X-linked disorders occur as a result of missing, malformed, or additional copies of the chromosome. Resulting conditions include:

  • Kleinfelter’s Syndrome
  • Triple X syndrome
  • Turner syndrome
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