The uterine fundus is the dome-shaped uppermost, rounded part of the uterus. The shape and competency of the uterine fundus are assessed when a woman is unable to conceive because uterine fibroids can interfere with the implantation of the embryo within the uterus.
The fundal height is also used to determine the progression of pregnancy.
FertilitySmarts explains Uterine Fundus
The uterine fundus is important for the following reasons:
The fundas can become occupied by uterine tumors called fibroids that develop from the muscular layer of the uterine wall. Massive tumors cause the uterine fundus to enlarge, displacing it from its normal position.
Fundal height is used to estimate fetal growth and development during pregnancy. It is measured by placing a measuring tape or fingers between the top of the woman's uterus to the top of the joint of the pubic bone. It is typically recorded on every prenatal visit. The fundal height loses its accuracy as the pregnancy approaches term. A shorter or longer than normal height may indicate issues with the developing fetus.
Shorter height may be due to one of the following reasons:
Incorrect estimation of the due date of pregnancy as determined by the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP). This can occur when the woman does not remember the first day of the last LMP
Too little fluid in the amniotic sac (oligohydramnios)
Fetal descent to the pelvis, which usually occurs two to four weeks prior to delivery
Restriction of the growth of the fetus while in the uterus
A small fetus
On the other hand, a larger height may be secondary to one of the following factors:
Pregnant with twins or multiples
Error in the calculated due date of pregnancy
A diabetic mother with a large fetus
Too much fluid in the amniotic sac (polyhydramnios)
Birth weight greater than the 90th percentile at birth
Abnormal fertilized egg or enlargement of tissue from the placenta as seen in molar pregnancy
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Evaluation of Infertility, Ovulation Induction and Assisted Reproduction.